Gaetano T. Montelione Laboratory
CABM Protein NMR Laboratory


Mating Pheromone Er-10

Er-10 is a pheromone from the ciliated protozoan organism, Euplotes raikovi. The pheromone itself is secreted by the cells of the unicellular eukaryote. Mating ciliate pheromones are known as gamones, which are diffusible extracellular signals that determine classes of cells known as mating types. These proteins then prepare the cells for conjugation by altering their cell surfaces. When the protein is excreted by one cell, it may induce a mating pair to form. The network of pheromones in the organism E. raikovi is a good example of transmembrane signaling.
Pheromones from the organism E. raikovi are synthesized as precursors that contain a signal peptide sequence and a prosegment amino terminal. These two charcteristics are representative and highly conserved among secreted proteins.

  • Keywords: Pheromone, Signal
  • View this protein's PDB entry as 1ERP
  • View this protein's SwissProt entry MERX_EUPRA


L.R. Brown, S. Mronga, R.A. Bradshaw, C. Ortenzi, P. Luporini, K. Wuthrich
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Solution Structure of the Pheromone Er-10 From the Ciliated Protozoan Euplotes raivoki.
J. Mol. Biol. 231:800 (1993)
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S. Raffioni, C. Miceli, A. Vallesi, S.K. Chowdhury, B.T. Chait, P. Luporini, R.A. Bradshaw
Primary Structure of Euplotes raikovi Pheromones: Comparison of Five Sequences of Pheromones with Variable Mating Interactions.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 89:2071 (1992)
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S. Raffioni, P. Luporini, R.A. Bradshaw
Purification, Characterization, and Amino Acid Sequence of the Mating Pheromone Er-10 of the Ciliate Euplotes raikovi.
Biochemistry 28:5250 (1989)
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